Electrochemical detection of NOx gas based on disposable paper-based analytical device using a copper nanoparticles-modified screen-printed graphene electrode
A disposable gas-sensing paper-based device (gPAD) was fabricated in origami design which integrates the gas adsorbent and the electrochemical detection zone in a single device. The gPAD for the determination of NOx gas uses a screen-printed graphene electrode modified with copper nanoparticles (CuNP/SPGE) to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity. The gPAD detects both, NO and NO2 (as NOx) with same current responses. The measurement could be performed directly through differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) with a detection limit as low as 0.23 vppm and 0.03 vppm with exposure times of 25 min and 1 h, respectively. The reproducibility in terms of relative standard deviation was less than 5.1% (n = 7 devices) at 25, 75 and 125 vppm NO2 and the life-time of this device was more than 30 days. The gPAD was applied to detect NOx in air and exhaust gases from cars. In comparison with spectrophotometry, there are no significant differences between both methods using a paired t-test of the results on a 95% confidence level. The designed gPAD can provide a new template model for other gas sensors with features of disposability and portability for fieldwork analysis at low cost.